The Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S), implemented by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts on behalf of the European Commission, publishes monthly climate bulletins reporting on the changes observed in global surface air temperature, sea ice cover and hydrological variables.
Its latest report states that Europe this year experienced its warmest October on record in terms of surface air temperatures. Globally, the month was the third warmest on record, though the difference between the fourth, fifth and sixth placed Octobers was only marginal; however, all six warmest have occurred in the past six years.
Temperatures were also well above the 1981-2010 average in most of the Arctic and over the Tibetan Plateau. But, in contrast, it was cooler than average over the eastern Pacific, large parts of inland North America and around the northern part of the Tibetan Plateau.
According to the report, the Arctic saw its lowest average October sea ice extent since satellite measurements began in 1979. October was the fourth consecutive month with ice-free or close to ice-free conditions along the Northern Sea Route. Notably, Antarctica saw a second month of above average sea ice extents, following 48 months of consecutive below average extent.